Several protesters and members of security forces wounded in clashes
China called for a ceasefire between Ukraine and Moscow and the opening of peace talks in a 12-point proposal to end the fighting that started one year ago.
Beijing claims to have a neutral stance in the war, but China has also said it has a “no limits friendship” with Russia and has refused to criticise its attack on Ukraine, or even refer to it as an invasion. It has accused the West of provoking the conflict and “fanning the flames" by providing Ukraine with defensive arms.
The US has also said China may be preparing to provide Russia with military aid, something Beijing says lacks evidence. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin has called the allegation “nothing more than slander and smears”.
There are doubts over whether China can be seen as an honest broker.
China and Russia have increasingly aligned their foreign policies to oppose the US-led liberal international order. Foreign Minister Wang Yi reaffirmed the strength of their bilateral ties when he met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow this week.
State Department spokesman Ned Price had said earlier on Thursday that the US would reserve judgement on the proposal but that China’s allegiance with Russia meant it was not a neutral mediator. “We would like to see nothing more than a just and durable peace ... but we are sceptical that reports of a proposal like this will be a constructive path forward,” he said.
Before the document, titled “China’s Position on the Political Settlement of the Ukraine Crisis,” was released, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky had called it an important first step to have China involved.
“I think that, in general, the fact that China started talking about peace in Ukraine, I think that it is not bad,” he said at a news conference on Thursday with Spain's prime minister.
The 12-point paper issued on Friday morning by China’s Foreign Ministry also urges the end of Western sanctions imposed on Russia and calls for measures to prevent attacks on civilians and civilian facilities, keep nuclear facilities safe, establish humanitarian corridors for civilians and ensure the export of grain after disruptions inflated global food prices.
It mainly reiterated long-held Chinese positions, including that all countries' “sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity" be guaranteed.
“Dialogue and negotiation are the only viable way out to resolve the Ukraine crisis," the proposal said. It offered no details on what form talks should take, any preconditions or which countries should be involved, but said “China is willing to continue to play a constructive role in this regard."
It also called for an end to “Cold War mentality" — China's standard term for what it regards as US hegemony, and maintenance of alliances such as Nato.
“The security of a country should not be pursued at the expense of others. The security of a region should not be achieved by strengthening or expanding military blocs," the proposal said. "The legitimate security interests and concerns of all countries must be taken seriously and addressed properly.”
China abstained on Thursday when the UN General Assembly approved a non-binding resolution that calls for Russia to end hostilities in Ukraine and withdraw its forces. It is one of 16 countries that either voted against or abstained on almost all of five previous UN resolutions on Ukraine.
The resolution, drafted by Ukraine in consultation with its allies, passed 141-7 with 32 abstentions, sending a strong message on the eve of the first anniversary of the attack that appears to leave Russia more isolated than ever.
China has said that the present conflict is “not something it wishes to see,” and has repeatedly said any use of nuclear weapons would be completely unacceptable, in an implied repudiation of Putin’s statement that Russia would use “all available means” to protect its territory.
“Conflict and war benefit no one," the proposal said.
“All parties should maintain rationality and restraint ... support Russia and Ukraine to meet each other, resume direct dialogue as soon as possible, gradually promote the de-escalation and relaxation of the situation, and finally reach a comprehensive ceasefire," it said.
Reiterating China's position, it said, “Nuclear weapons must not be used and nuclear wars must not be fought."
Shi Yinhong, a professor of international relations at Beijing’s Renmin University, said China's proposal was necessary, but not novel.
“China’s peace proposal does not change but combines its comprehensive positions on the crisis and war in Ukraine," Shi said.
“China feels it necessary to repeat its self-perceived neutrality at this juncture, to save some international inference by not only criticizing Nato but also distinguishing itself from Russia’s behaviour,” Shi said.
China's position “always falls far short of Russia's preference but still meets with criticism from the West and its allies," Shi said.
While neither side is likely to agree to China playing a mediating role, or even pay much heed to the Chinese proposal, Beijing needed to clarify its stance, he said.
The proposal comes as US-China relations have hit a historic low over Taiwan, disputes over trade and technology, human rights and China’s aggressive actions in the South China Sea.
US National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan said on CNN on Thursday that his first reaction to the proposal was that “it could stop at point one, which is: Respect the sovereignty of all nations”.
The State Department’s Price said that the US hopes “all countries that have a relationship with Russia unlike the one that we have will use that leverage, will use that influence to push Russia meaningfully and usefully to end this brutal war of aggression. (China) is in a position to do that in ways that we just aren’t.”
Most recently, the sides tangled over the US shooting down of an alleged Chinese spy balloon that had floated over the continental United States. China responded furiously to the action, saying it was merely an airship for meteorological research and accused the US of “indiscriminate use of force”.
Sullivan said that China had “not taken off the table the possibility of providing military assistance to Ukraine, although we haven't seen them do it yet”.
Sullivan also noted China's abstaining in the UN vote and that Wang Yi visited other European nations during his recent visit to the continent, “trying to sell the idea that China's not all-in with Russia”.
“I cannot predict the future,” he told CNN. “What I can tell you is that the United States is not going to dictate to Ukraine how this war ends.”
Several protesters and members of security forces wounded in clashes
Sister of Congress leader Rahul Gandhi comes to her brother's defence in tweet alleging his disqualification is a ruse to divert attention from Indian billionaire embroiled in financial malpractice accusations
Russia will respond to Ukraine receiving depleted uranium ammunition from the West with deployment of similar weapons of its own
The financial economy built atop low interest rates could not cope with the Fed’s change of direction
Khan told the judge that he wanted to join the investigation in the cases registered against him by Lahore’s Racecourse police
Man alleged that during a 2016 ski collision the movie star's recklessness on the slope caused broken ribs, brain damage and lasting physical injuries
Attack carried out in retaliation for drone that struck facility and killed US citizen
UNHCR report says Islamic giving plays increasing role in helping the forcibly displaced