The four-time world champion, who topped the first session earlier in the afternoon, had to settle for second in the evening's session, topped by Mercedes' Lewis Hamilton.
Vettel had a time of 1:38.026 seconds as compared to Hamilton's 1:37.877 seconds and had earlier logged a timing of 1:39.006 seconds.
"This was a good day," Vettel said after the second practice session at the Yas Marina Circuit on Friday night.
"The car and the balance were good and I think we were all very close. If we can do the usual step forward on Saturday and improve the car a little bit, then it should be a good day, but I don't think we need to do too much," he added.
Vettel said that the team was in a good shape for next season.
"We also tried something aimed at the next season today. I think we are ready for next year, but right now it is important to finish this season in the right way, because the better the result, the better the mood within the team. Saturday is always particular and different, but we'll see what happens. We need to get everything right. This is not the worst track at which to overtake, but usually it depends on where you are and who you want to overtake," said the former Red Bull driver.
Vettel and teammate Kimi Raikkonen used the Ultrasoft Pirellis during the first session and later mixed Ultra and Supersofts for the session in the evening.
Raikkonen felt that they can still improve.
"On Friday, we always try to make progress in the set-up of the car," said Raikkonen, who finished P4 in both the sessions.
"For sure there are things we have to improve. There is some work to be done, but that's the normal story. Today (Friday), it was not easy to put a good lap together. The car felt very good in some places, while in some others it could have been better. It's too early to have a clear idea. We will analyse all the data that we gathered in both sessions and we will try to do our best over the weekend," added the Finn.
The codeshare agreement unlocks enhanced connectivity for the passengers of both airlines
The 39-year-old South African star said he is still fit enough to play at the highest level
The material was reportedly taken from dead or captured Palestinian gunmen