Climate action is needed to check warming
The Conference of Parties (CoP) this year in Madrid is a stepping stone to next year when the new commitments to climate action come in force. The 2019 CoP aims at increasing ambitions to tackle climate change and completing processes related to the full operationalisation of the Paris Climate Change Agreement, before the 2020 climate summit.
According to the UNFCCC, at COP 25, "Crucial climate action work will be taken forward in areas including finance, the transparency of climate action, forests and agriculture, technology, capacity building, loss and damage, indigenous peoples, cities, oceans and gender."
Among its highest priorities this year is the establishment of the rules for creating carbon markets among nations, cities and corporations to incentivise emission-reduction strategies.
Longer heat waves, more intense rainstorms, seas eating into coastal cities, the disappearance of corals and crop production impacted negatively, putting pressure on food security - these are just some of the impacts if temperatures go up by 2 degrees Celsius.
Keeping temperature increase to a 1.5 degree Celsius limit, versus a 2 degree Celsius increase, can reduce the intensity of climate change impact on society and natural biodiversity.
Given that global temperature is currently rising by 0.2 degrees C (0.1 degrees C) per decade, human-induced warming has already reached 1 degrees C above pre-industrial levels around 2017. If this pace of warming continues, would reach 1.5 degrees C around 2040, notes a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).